Diagnostic endoscopy is a type of clinical examination to look at the internal organs using an instrument called an endoscope, which is a long tube with an attached light and lens. The endoscope is inserted through a natural opening like your mouth or rectum. When the examination is done through the mouth, it is called bronchoscopy and when done through the rectum, this is called sigmoidoscopy.
Endoscopy is a non-surgical procedure that allows specialists to check for abnormal tissue, irritations, ulcers and inflammation of internal organs, extract tissue samples from the body (biopsy) or insert dye into a particular organ to create a clearer view under X-ray. The internal view of the organs are displayed on a screen for a detailed examination by the specialist, as shown in the picture below. The procedure is carried out on an empty stomach and normally under anaesthesia, as decided by your consultant.